the first as tragedy, the second as farce

According to Hegel all great events and historical figures are repeated to speak twice.

He forgot to add: the first as a tragedy, the second as a farce.

Caussidiere for Danton, Louis Blanc for Robespierre, The 1848-1851 Mountain for The 1793-1795 Mountain , the nephew for the uncle.

We see the same caricature in the circumstances where the second edition of 18 Brumaire happened.

Men make their own history, but they do not do it arbitrarily, under given conditions that have been transmitted from the past.

The tradition of all dead generations weighs very heavily on the brain of the living.

And even when they seem engaged in revolutionizing themselves and the things around them, in creating something entirely new, it is precisely in these times of revolutionary crisis that they timidly conjure the spirits of the past, that they borrow their names, slogans and costumes, to appear on the new stage of history in this respectable disguise and borrowed language.

in Karl Marx’s The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, 1852


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